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Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)

Titanium Golf Club Head

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Titanium

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Titanium

Comparison of cast and forged Titanium golf club heads.

M. M. Nowell and S. I. Wright (2001). Microtextural Characterization of Golf Club Heads. Materials Science in Sports. F. H. Froes and S. J. Haake. Warrendale, PA, TMS: 119-131.

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Titanium

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Titanium

Microstructural evolution of hot forged Ti-6Al-4V

OIM has been used to investigate microstructural evolution during hot working in Ti-6Al-4V. Cavitation occurs during upset forging. The process of cavity formation depends on the misorientations between adjacent colony orientations, whether prior grain boundary alpha separates two orientations, and the actual strain history that occurs in the neighborhood. Cavities tend to form at interfaces that have 90° misoriented colony boundaries.

T. R. Bieler, P. D. Nicolaou and S. L. Semiatin (2005). "An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Local Colony Orientations and Misorientation on Cavitation during Hot Working of Ti-6Al-4V." Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 36A: 129-140.

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Titanium

Titanium Dual Phase Map
Dual Phase (α & β)

EBSD Image Quality and Orientation Map of Titanium
EBSD image quality and orientation map of Titanium

Titanium Boride Diffraction Pattern
Diffraction pattern from Titanium Boride

Three PRIAS™ regions of interest from a TiAl sample
Using PRIAS™, three regions of interest (ROIs) selected for RGB coloring simultaneously with two different ROIs for gray scale shading from a TiAl sample

EBSD Orientation Map of Titanium
EBSD orientation map across the cross-section of selective laser melting (SLM) deposited titanium showing lath and packet microstructure with no significant preferred orientation

EBSD Grain Map of Titanium
EBSD grain map from SLM deposited titanium where detected gains are randomly colored to showcase size and morphology


Ilmenite Sample
Ilmenite Sample
  • Simultaneously collected Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) using an Octane Elite Silicon Drift Detector and Hikari Super EBSD camera with APEX™ Software
  • Data collected from a sample from Saint Urbain Anorthosite Massif in Quebec, Canada
  • System contains economic deposits of titanium and iron in Fe/Ti oxide minerals
  • Montage functionality in APEX enables large area data collection
  • Chi-Scan™ is used to differentiate the crystallographically similar Ilmenite with exsolution lamellae of hematite
  • EDAX tools used to measure grain size and shape of each constituent phase

Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry (WDS)

Barium Titanate

Barium Titanate

Some elemental peak overlaps cannot be avoided or the elements discovered even at high beam energies. This example of Barium Titanate (BaTiO3) is a perfect illustration. There are no other X-ray lines for Ba that can be easily used for discovery except the L-lines at 4.4 keV. Those lines are very close in energy to the Ti-K lines and appear overlapped in an EDS spectrum (green). The WDS (red) has sufficient spectral resolution to separate the lines and confirm the existence of both elements in the sample.