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EDAX in the News

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  • AZo Insights from Industry: Velocity Ultra and Spherical Indexing
    AZo Insights from Industry: New Tools for EBSD Data Collection and Analysis

    Wednesday, December 14, 2022

    Matt Nowell and Will Lenthe discuss EDAX's latest advances in electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) data collection and analysis.


  • Read Matt Nowell's "Cutting-edge EBSD detector technology" article in Microscopy & Analysis
    Cutting-edge EBSD detector technology

    Wednesday, December 14, 2022

    Recent developments in EBSD detector technology have resulted in detectors with faster acquisition speeds and detectors with the highest sensitivity for low beam dose applications. The high acquisition speeds have been enabled by optimized CMOS imaging sensors optically coupled to a phosphor screen. In contrast, high sensitivity has been achieved by introducing direct detection into the EBSD market. This article reviews this recent technology and presents application examples enabled by this technology.


  • EBSD chapter of the International Tables for Crystallography Volume C: Mathematical, physical and chemical tables
    Electron backscatter diffraction chapter of the International Tables for Crystallography Volume C: Mathematical, physical and chemical tables

    Wednesday, August 17, 2022

    This chapter provides an overview of the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) modality which, over the past thirty years, has become a core microstructure characterization technique in both the materials and geological fields. EBSD typically produces 2D maps (or 3D volumes in the case of serial sectioning) of the orientations of the constituent crystallites of a sample with respect to an external reference frame. The chapter starts by describing the experimental geometry of the sample and detector inside the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). This is followed by a review of the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron scattering which, along with the detector geometry, can be used to predict EBSD patterns, including the diffuse background intensity. Since EBSD produces orientations, several commonly used orientation representations and parametrizations are reviewed before explaining how the crystal orientation is extracted from the experimental patterns, using either Hough-transform-based feature extraction, or the whole-pattern-matching approaches known as dictionary indexing and spherical indexing. To obtain accurate results it is crucial that the sample surface be properly prepared and a number of standard techniques for obtaining an optimal sample surface finish are described. Commercial and open-source software solutions for data analysis are described as well as a number of commonly used data formats. The chapter concludes with several examples of applications taken from both the materials and geological literature, and brief ruminations on the future of the EBSD characterization technique.


  • Orientation Dependent Interface Morphology and Oxide Stability in a Commercial Niobium Alloy: Explaining Experimental Results with Density Functional Theory
    Orientation Dependent Interface Morphology and Oxide Stability in a Commercial Niobium Alloy: Explaining Experimental Results with Density Functional Theory

    Tuesday, March 1, 2022

    The metal-oxide interface of a commercial niobium (Nb) alloy showed clear presence of ‘hills’ and ‘plateaus’ on the metallic side. This interface morphology was orientation-dependent and appeared to determine the presence of the surrounding oxide phase(s). In particular, the hills were associated with non-(111) Nb crystallographic orientations. The corresponding oxide phase was mostly tetragonal Nb2O5, which also contained significant porosities. Oxide phases around the plateaus, on the other hand, were primarily orthorhombic Nb2O5. In addition, the oxygen (O) concentrations also differed on the metallic side of the hills and plateaus, the latter showing a sharper compositional gradient. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to explain the experimentally observed orientation dependence and oxide stability. The calculations showed that (111)-Nb grains not only had the highest surface energy (ESurface) and O adsorption energy (EAds), but also had the highest activation energy barrier for O diffusion. On the other hand, the tetragonal Nb2O5 was energetically stable at higher O partial pressure. An analytical model, based on O adsorption and short-range diffusion at the metal-oxide interface, was proposed. This study not only related the experimental results with DFT simulations, but also provided an atomistic framework to interface-controlled oxidation in a commercial Nb alloy.


  • Cryoforged nanotwinned titanium with ultrahigh strength and ductility
    Cryoforged Nanotwinned Titanium with Ultrahigh Strength and Ductility

    Friday, September 17, 2021

    Nanostructured metals are usually strong because the ultrahigh density of internal boundaries restricts the mean free path of dislocations. Usually, they are also more brittle because of their diminished work-hardening ability. Nanotwinned materials, with coherent interfaces of mirror symmetry, can overcome this inherent trade-off. We show a bulk nanostructuring method that produces a multiscale, hierarchical twin architecture in a hexagonal closed-packed, solute-free, and coarse-grained titanium (Ti), with a substantial enhancement of tensile strength and ductility. Pure Ti achieved an ultimate tensile strength of almost 2 gigapascals and a true failure strain close to 100% at 77 kelvin. The multiscale twin structures are thermally stable up to 873 kelvin, which is above the critical temperature for many applications in extreme environments. Our results demonstrate a practical route to achieve attractive mechanical properties in Ti without involving exotic and often expensive alloying elements.


  • Nature Materials: Chemical heterogeneity enhances hydrogen resistance in high-strength steels
    Chemical Heterogeneity Enhances Hydrogen Resistance in High-Strength Steels

    Thursday, July 8, 2021

    The antagonism between strength and resistance to hydrogen embrittlement in metallic materials is an intrinsic obstacle to the design of lightweight yet reliable structural components operated in hydrogen-containing environments. Economical and scalable microstructural solutions to this challenge must be found. Here, we introduce a counterintuitive strategy to exploit the typically undesired chemical heterogeneity within the material’s microstructure that enables local enhancement of crack resistance and local hydrogen trapping. We use this approach in a manganese-containing high-strength steel and produce a high dispersion of manganese-rich zones within the microstructure. These solute-rich buffer regions allow for local micro-tuning of the phase stability, arresting hydrogen-induced microcracks and thus interrupting the percolation of hydrogen-assisted damage. This results in a superior hydrogen embrittlement resistance (better by a factor of two) without sacrificing the material’s strength and ductility. The strategy of exploiting chemical heterogeneities, rather than avoiding them, broadens the horizon for microstructure engineering via advanced thermomechanical processing.


  • Unraveling the Microstructure of Layered Metal Halide Perovskite Films
    Unraveling the Microstructure of Layered Metal Halide Perovskite Films

    Monday, December 7, 2020

    Layered metal halide perovskites are attractive semiconductors for different optoelectronic applications owing to their large structural versatility and rich photophysics. As is the case for the more conventional 3D perovskites, thin films of these materials can be deposited directly from solution. While much attention is focused on thin film microstructure and its relation to device performance for 3D perovskites, relatively little is known about the microstructure of layered perovskites. Herein, a combination of polarized Raman spectroscopy, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and grazing‐incidence wide‐angle X‐ray scattering (GIWAXS) is used to unravel the microstructure of blade‐coated films of phenylethylammonium lead iodide ((PEA)2PbI4). For the first time, the feasibility of constructing absolute orientation maps of layered organic–inorganic perovskites using EBSD is demonstrated. Blade‐coated films of (PEA)2PbI4 are shown to possess a strong texture, in which the inorganic planes are oriented parallel to the substrate with only minor variations from perfect [001]‐alignment. Both EBSD and Raman spectroscopy show that there is no preferred orientation of grains in the in‐plane direction. Using GIWAXS, this texture is found to extend throughout the bulk of the film. Understanding and optimizing the texture of thin films is crucial for the further development of layered perovskite devices.


  • New insights on cellular structures strengthening mechanisms and thermal stability of an austenitic stainless steel fabricated by laser powder-bed-fusion
    New insights on cellular structures strengthening mechanisms and thermal stability of an austenitic stainless steel fabricated by laser powder-bed-fusion

    Monday, December 7, 2020

    Rapid solidification cellular structures are known to play a crucial role in helping achieve high strength and high ductility in 316L austenitic stainless steels fabricated by laser powder-bed-fusion (L-PBF). Despite this, the understanding of their intrinsic characteristics (e.g., crystallographic orientations, dislocations, precipitates, elemental segregations) and the respective impacts on the material's strength and thermal stability remains nebulous. We conduct several dedicated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies to investigate these strengthening mechanisms and identified that cell walls follow specific crystallographic orientations. The high density of tangled dislocations inside cell walls are found to have a higher tendency to dissociate, forming wider stacking faults while oxide precipitates are confined inside cell walls. These features act as barriers to moving dislocations upon plastic deformation and contribute to the high strength. Our dislocation dynamic simulations indicate that segregated particles are effective in blocking dislocations locally, helping the formation of dislocation cells and participating to the material strengthening. To study the thermal stability of L-PBF 316L SS, we perform systematic post-processing heat treatments from 400-1200°C. Microstructure characterizations using electron backscatter diffraction, TEM, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled with dislocation dynamics and CALPHAD simulations and tensile testing reveal three heat treatment zones where the structure-property relationship can be tuned. After annealing up to 600°C, the microstructure remains stable; but the work hardening behavior is altered with a material that retains high strength and high ductility. Annealing between 600-1000°C activates elemental diffusion and gradual disappearance of cell walls, leading to a sharp drop in yield strength and a tradeoff between strength and ductility. Low-angle grain boundaries remain stable up to 1000°C while the average grain size defined by high angle grain boundaries is near constant at annealing temperatures up to 800°C. Annealing above 1100°C removes all L-PBF microstructure footprints and renders a conventional-like microstructure. Compared to conventional materials, L-PBF 316LSS displays substantially higher thermal stability and superior performance at elevated temperatures.


  • Effect of the Silicon Drift Detector on EDAX Standardless Quant Methods
    Effect of the Silicon Drift Detector on EDAX Standardless Quant Methods

    Monday, March 23, 2020

    Two standardless quantitative methods for evaluating EDS X-ray spectra were investigated in regards their basic metrics. Both methods have similar total errors, but the error contributions are from different sources. In the P/B-based method, error is more related to counting statistics and therefore can benefit from high count rates achievable with modern silicon drift detectors. To reduce systematic uncertainties in the net-count-based standardless approach, mea­sured values need to be supported by data in a previously measured database. Using the P/B-based method, it is now possible to achieve standardless EDS quantification within ±10% relative deviation from true composition for 95% of results.


  • Read the "On the exceptional damage-tolerance of gradient metallic materials" article in the January/February 2020 issue of Materials Today
    On the Exceptional Damage-Tolerance of Gradient Metallic Materials

    Tuesday, March 3, 2020

    An experimental study is described on the fracture toughness and micro-mechanisms associated with the initiation and propagation of cracks in metallic nickel containing marked gradients in grain size, ranging from ~30 nm to ~4 µm. Specifically, cracks are grown in a gradient structured (GS) nickel with grain-size gradient ranging from the coarse macro-scale to nano-scale (CG -> NG) and vice versa (NG -> CG), with the measured crack-resistance R-curves compared to the corresponding behavior in uniform nano-grained (NG) and coarse-grained (CG) materials. It is found that the gradient structures display a much-improved combination of high strength and toughness compared to uniform grain-sized materials. However, based on J-integral measurements in the gradient materials, the crack-initiation toughness is far higher for cracks grown in the direction of the coarse-to-nano grained gradient than vice versa, a result which we ascribe primarily to excessive crack-tip blunting in the coarse-grained microstructure. Both gradient structures, however, display marked rising R-curve behavior with exceptional crack-growth toughnesses exceeding 200 MPa.m½.


  • EDAX and SPECTRO sponsored a BioBus Education Enrichment Program at Ramsey Middle School.
    EDAX and SPECTRO Sponsor the BioBus Science Education Enrichment Program at Ramsey Middle School

    Friday, October 25, 2019

    EDAX and SPECTRO, members of the AMETEK Materials Analysis Division based in Mahwah, sponsored the BioBus Science Education Enrichment Program at Eric S. Smith Middle School in Ramsey, NJ on Tuesday, October 22 and Wednesday, October 23.


  • "Reflector Selection for the Indexing of Electron Backscatter Diffraction Patterns" from the June 2019 issue of Microscopy and Microanalysis
    Reflector Selection for the Indexing of Electron Backscatter Diffraction Patterns

    Thursday, July 25, 2019

    We propose a new methodology for ranking the reflectors used in traditional Hough-based indexing of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns. Instead of kinematic X-ray or electron structure factors (Fhkl) currently utilized, we propose the integrated Kikuchi band intensity parameter (βhkl) based on integrated dynamical electron backscatter intensities. The proposed parameter is compared with the traditional kinematical intensity, as well as the average Hough transform peak intensity, and used to index EBSD patterns for a number of different material systems of varying unit cell complexities including nickel, silicon, rutile, and forsterite. For elemental structures, βhkl closely follows the kinematical ranking. However, significant ranking differences arise for more complex unit cells, with the βhkl parameter showing a better correlation with the integrated Hough intensities. Finally, Hough-based indexing of a simulated forsterite data set showed an appreciable improvement in the median confidence index (0.15 to 0.35) when βhkl is used instead of for ranking the reflectors.


  • Testing With A Difference - Microscopy & Analysis May/June 2019
    Testing With A Difference

    Wednesday, June 12, 2019

    Dr. Kalin Dragnewski carries out mechanical testing with a difference. From stainless steel and titanium alloys to volcanic sand and the tendons in rats tails, he and his colleagues at the Laboratory for In-situ Microscopy and Analysis, University of Oxford, analyze a myriad of materials using an array of instruments.


  • Nano-scale Si segregation and precipitation in Cr2Al(Si)C MAX phase coatings impeding grain growth during oxidation
    Nanoscale Si Segregation and Precipitation in Cr2AlSiC MAX Phase Coatings Impeding Grain Growth During Oxidation

    Thursday, February 7, 2019

    We recently reported that the columnar grain width of Cr2AlC MAX phase coatings increases during oxidation (4 h at 1120°C) by 80%, while for 0.7 at.% Si additions to Cr2AlC, coarsening of only 12% was observed. Here, we use nm scale compositional and microstructural investigations to identify significant differences between Cr2AlC and Cr2Al(Si)C. In particular, needle-shaped precipitates coarsen into globular Cr3Si precipitates upon oxidation in the Si-containing MAX phase. We infer that the presence of these precipitates, which are located predominantly along grain boundaries in the MAX phase, retards coarsening during oxidation by Zener pinning.

    This is the first report of Zener pinning in MAX phases. We show that Si additions to Cr2AlC cause the formation of precipitates, which retard grain coarsening during oxidation.


  • New Trends in Global Failure Analysis Market | Emerging Technology with prominent Key Players
    New Trends in Global Failure Analysis Market | Emerging Technology with prominent Key Players

    Sunday, November 18, 2018

    Failure Analysis Market is accounted for $ 5300.26 Million in 2017 and is expected to reach $11150.26 Million by 2026 growing at a CAGR of 8.6% during the forecast period. Rising applications of failure analysis equipment in nanotechnology and medical applications and advancements in technology and usage of failure analysis equipment in semiconductors are some of the factors driving the market. However, high maintenance and equipment cost may hinder the market growth. Demand for failure analysis equipment in emerging nations may create an opportunity to the market.


  • AMETEK India Opens A Technology Solutions Center in Bangalore
    AMETEK India Opens A Technology Solutions Center in Bangalore

    Friday, October 12, 2018

    American manufacturer of electronic instruments and electromechanical devices AMETEK Instruments has set up a technology solutions centre at its headquarters in Whitefield, Bangalore, to support the growth of its electronic instrument and electromechanical products businesses in India.


  • "Biomineralization as a Paradigm of Directional Solidification: A Physical Model for Molluscan Shell Ultrastructural Morphogenesis" in the September 2018 issue of Advanced Materials
    Biomineralization as a Paradigm of Directional Solidification: A Physical Model for Molluscan Shell Ultrastructural Morphogenesis

    Tuesday, October 2, 2018

    Molluscan shells are a model system to understand the fundamental principles of mineral formation by living organisms. The diversity of unconventional mineral morphologies and 3D mineral–organic architectures that comprise these tissues, in combination with their exceptional mechanical efficiency, offers a unique platform to study the formation–structure–function relationship in a biomineralized system. However, so far, morphogenesis of these ultrastructures is poorly understood. Here, a comprehensive physical model, based on the concept of directional solidification, is developed to describe molluscan shell biomineralization. The capacity of the model to define the forces and thermodynamic constraints that guide the morphogenesis of the entire shell construct—the prismatic and nacreous ultrastructures and their transitions—and govern the evolution of the constituent mineralized assemblies on the ultrastructural and nanostructural levels is demonstrated using the shell of the bivalve Unio pictorum. Thereby, explicit tools for novel bioinspired and biomimetic bottom‐up materials design are provided.


  • "Conducting controlled in situ high temperature tensile tests within a SEM" from the July/August 2018 issue of Microscopy & Analysis
    Conducting controlled in situ high temperature tensile tests within a SEM

    Thursday, July 12, 2018

    A methodology to perform in situ high temperature tensile tests of Mg-alloys within a SEM with a high degree of mechanical and temperature control is described in detail. The fact that Mg might vaporize under vacuum requires technical challenges to be overcome if one aims at conducting tests without damaging the microscope. The detailed methodology enabled insights into the link between the development of local strain heterogeneities and the occurrence of fundamental deformation mechanisms.


  • In-situ study of crack initiation and propagation in a dual phase AlCoCrFeNi entropy alloy
    In-situ study of crack initiation and propagation in a dual phase AlCoCrFeNi entropy alloy

    Saturday, July 1, 2017

    This study reports the effect of phase distribution on crack propagation in a dual phase AlCoCrFeNi high entropy alloy (HEA) under tensile loading. The alloy is characterized by the presence of a brittle disordered BCC phase that can be toughened by precipitation of a ductile FCC phase during homogenization heat treatment. The stress and strain partitioning between the two phases is of paramount importance to determine the mechanical response of this alloy. The as-cast alloy was subjected to homogenization at 1273 K for 6 h to prevent the formation of detrimental sigma phases and to precipitate the ductile FCC phase. In-situ tensile test in a scanning electron microscope with an electron backscatter diffraction facility was carried out to understand the micro-mechanisms of deformation of the alloy. Precipitation of the FCC phase at the BCC grain boundaries reflected the effect of the FCC phase on crack deflection and branching during propagation. The strain partitioning between the two phases and the evolution of misorientation distribution was investigated. It is observed that the presence of ductile FCC high entropy phase can impart good room temperature ductility to the brittle BCC phase. As there are very few investigations performed on the dual phase HEAs, a proper microstructural design can be achieved and can be utilized to toughen the brittle HEAs.


  • Measurement of Grain Boundary Properties in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Thin Films
    Measurement of Grain Boundary Properties in Cu(ln,Ga)Se2 Thin Films

    Wednesday, May 31, 2017

    Semiconductors CulnSe2 (CIS) and alloys of Cu(ln,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) are often used as the light absorbing layer in thin film photovoltaic devices. These polycrystalline materials reach good conversion efficiencies despite the presence of grain boundaries, which can degrade device performance. Grain properties such as size distribution and orientation can be characterized using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The EBSD method has been used extensively to determine texture and recrystallization in metal forming processes but to a lesser extent for characterization of CIGS thin film properties. This article describes measurements of grain properties for CIGS thin films grown under different reaction conditions.


  • Improvements in SDD Efficiency - From X-ray Counts to Data
    Improvements in SDD Efficiency - From X-ray Counts to Data

    Wednesday, March 1, 2017

    Continuing advancements in window materials, detector modules, and electronics are leading to higher count rates, better light-element sensitivity, and improved energy-resolution stability over a wide range of count rates. In this article, we will briefly review how the different parts of the EDS system interact, from X-rays leaving the sample to the production of useful data and where recent changes have taken place. We then apply the gains offered by this new technology to three samples to illustrate the benefits that can be reaped.


  • Introduction and Comparison of New EBSD Post-Processing Methodologies
    Introduction and Comparison of New EBSD Post-Processing Methodologies

    Tuesday, December 1, 2015

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) provides a useful means for characterizing microstructure. However, it can be difficult to obtain index-able diffraction patterns from some samples. This can lead to noisy maps reconstructed from the scan data. Various post-processing methodologies have been developed to improve the scan data generally based on correlating non-indexed or mis-indexed points with the orientations obtained at neighboring points in the scan grid. Two new approaches are introduced (1) a re-scanning approach using local pattern averaging and (2) using the multiple solutions obtained by the triplet indexing method. These methodologies are applied to samples with noise introduced into the patterns artificially and by the operational settings of the EBSD camera. They are also applied to a heavily deformed and a fine-grained sample. In all cases, both techniques provide an improvement in the resulting scan data, the local pattern averaging providing the most improvement of the two. However, the local pattern averaging is most helpful when the noise in the patterns is due to the camera operating conditions as opposed to inherent challenges in the sample itself. A byproduct of this study was insight into the validity of various indexing success rate metrics. A metric based given by the fraction of points with CI values greater than some tolerance value (0.1 in this case) was confirmed to provide an accurate assessment of the indexing success rate.


  • High Spatial Resolution in X-ray Mapping
    High Spatial Resolution in X-ray Mapping

    Wednesday, July 1, 2015

    Various microanalysis applications, such as semiconductor and microelectronics, nanotechnology and life sciences, require high resolution analytical performance to understand subtle differences that impact the material's characteristics. The term resolution describes several different aspects of scanning electron microscope (SEM) based microanalysis. In general, it is defined as the ability of the system to resolve, or separate, two aspects of the analysis that are very close together. In imaging and mapping, resolution may be described as the ability to visibly separate two physically closely spaced items. In an X-ray spectrum, it means the ability to differentiate between two elements whose peaks fall at closely spaced energies, as with light element peak separation or low energy X-ray lines.


  • Elemental Analysis of Silicon in Plant Material with Variable-Pressure SEM
    Elemental Analysis of Silicon in Plant Material with Variable-Pressure SEM

    Sunday, March 1, 2015

    The cellular structure of biological plant material has been well characterized by light and electron microscopy [1]. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study the external morphology of plant cells, tissues, and organs [2]. Analytical SEM beam conditions are typically tailored to the requirements of the sample being investigated, and in the case of biological plant specimens, a low-kV electron beam (1 to 5 kV) is routinely employed for sample surface imaging to reduce beam damage to the tissue. For certain analyses, as in this work, it is necessary to work at non-conventional operating conditions in order to fully characterize the materials being studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). By varying the SEM beam conditions, inorganic phases can be located either at the top surface or in the sub-surface regions of plant tissue.


  • Electron Imaging with an EBSD Detector
    Electron Imaging with an EBSD Detector

    Thursday, January 1, 2015

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing the crystallographic orientation aspects of microstructures at length scales ranging from tens of nanometers to millimeters in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). With the advent of high-speed digital cameras for EBSD use, it has become practical to use the EBSD detector as an imaging device similar to a backscatter (or forward-scatter) detector. Using the EBSD detector in this manner enables images exhibiting topographic, atomic density and orientation contrast to be obtained at rates similar to slow scanning in the conventional SEM manner. The high-speed acquisition is achieved through extreme binning of the camera—enough to result in a 5×5 pixel pattern. At such high binning, the captured patterns are not suitable for indexing. However, no indexing is required for using the detector as an imaging device. Rather, a 5×5 array of images is formed by essentially using each pixel in the 5×5 pixel pattern as an individual scattered electron detector. The images can also be formed at traditional EBSD scanning rates by recording the image data during a scan or can also be formed through post-processing of patterns recorded at each point in the scan. Such images lend themselves to correlative analysis of image data with the usual orientation data provided by and with chemical data obtained simultaneously via X-Ray Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (XEDS).


  • Using the Orbis Micro-XRF Spectrometer to Study the Microstructure of Ancient Roman Seawater Concrete
    Using the Orbis Micro-XRF Spectrometer to Study the Microstructure of Ancient Roman Seawater Concrete

    Monday, September 1, 2014

    Ancient Roman builders designed maritime concrete harbor structures to remain intact in the aggressive seawater environment for very long periods of time.


  • Orientation Precision of Electron Backscatter Diffraction Measurements Near Grain Boundaries
    Investigations of twin boundary fatigue cracking in nickel and nitrogen-stabalized cold-worked austenitic stainless steels

    Monday, June 23, 2014

    Implant retrieval studies have indicated that the primary cause of failure in stainless steel devices is fatigue, and time or cycles required for fatigue crack initiation often consumes the majority of implant lifetime. Stainless steels with significant nitrogen additions have shown an improved fatigue response, but have also shown a peculiar preference for fatigue crack initiations at or along annealing twin boundaries in the face-centered cubic (FCC) materials. In a recent comparison study on cold-worked implant grade stainless steels, a number of fatigue crack initiations were found along former annealing twin boundaries on both nitrogen-stabilized austentitic (HNASS) and nickel-stabilized austenitic steels. Further investigations were warranted to determine the crystallographic conditions present around these annealing twin boundary cracks, since not every twin boundary showed crack initiation. The present study examined the crystallographic conditions present around each of the former annealing twin boundary cracks relative to the applied loading direction. It was determined that the former annealing twin boundary cracks showed the complete range of misorientation deviations allowed by the Brandon criterion. The textures of the cracked twin boundaries were found to be random relative to the overall global textures of the materials. Most of the cracked twin planes in the HNASS steel were shown to be high angles, and in many cases were nearly perpendicular to the material surface. The nickel-stabilized steel showed a preference for lower twin plane inclination angles relative to the material surface. High Schmid factors were shown for all grains surrounding the cracked twin boundaries indicating each grain was oriented favorably for slip relative to the applied loading direction. A high Taylor factor mismatch was also shown across most of the cracked twin boundaries in both steels indicating strong difference in expected yield response for each of the grains which suggest localized strain incompatibility was another important factor in twin boundary cracking.


  • Analysis of advanced ceramic materials with phase mapping energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy
    Analysis of Advanced Ceramic Materials with Phase Mapping Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy

    Sunday, June 1, 2014

    This article gives an overview of how modern energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy phase mapping can be used as an effective and efficient substitute for the conventional use of EDS plus additional techniques such as XRD analysis to characterize sample compositional factors. As even minor variations affect the performance properties of advanced ceramic materials, this analytical method is useful in a broad range of manufacturing and industrial labs.


  • Advanced Materials Characterization with Full-Spectrum Phase Mapping
    Advanced Materials Characterization with Full-Spectrum Phase Mapping

    Saturday, March 1, 2014

    X-ray mapping in electron microscopes with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) builds on the basics of qualitative X-ray microanalysis by providing a visual representation of the elements present. Mapping routines have long identified elements within a sample and displayed the elemental distribution in an image map of the sample area [1]. Often, visual comparisons of different element maps, side-by-side or overlaid, show where combinations of elements occur. These combinations of elements together in a map give a deeper understanding of the chemical nature of the material. However, image map comparison is only a starting point and does not make use of subtle differences in the full spectrum of elements. Therefore, more sophisticated routines that directly evaluate the total spectrum chemistry from a map dataset have been designed and incorporated into advanced systems to create a stronger foundation for advanced materials characterization.


  • TESCAN and the University of Alabama Announce the Addition of the LYRA XMU FIB-SEM Workstation to the UA Central Analytical Facility, a National Facility of Excellence for Atom Probe Applications Development
    TESCAN and the University of Alabama Announce the Addition of the LYRA XMU FIB-SEM Workstation to the UA Central Analytical Facility, a National Facility of Excellence for Atom Probe Applications Development

    Wednesday, November 13, 2013

    CRANBERRY TOWNSHIP, Pa.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--TESCAN, a leading global supplier of scanning electron microscopes and focused ion beam workstations has delivered a LYRA FIB-SEM workstation to the University of Alabama Central Analytical Facility (CAF), a national center of excellence. The LYRA is a FIB-SEM workstation and will be used for preparing atom probe tomography and transmission electron microscope specimens. In the future, this instrument will be configured with an EDAX Pegasus EDS/EBSD system to provide chemical and structural analysis in three-dimensional views.


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