Lead

Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)

PZT - Lead Zirconium Titanate

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Lead

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Lead

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Lead

The pseudo-symmetric structure of PZT results in similar yet different orientation solutions for a given pattern. Recent results show that OIM can distinguish between these solutions correctly the majority of the time.

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Lead

Orientation Maps before and after Pseudo Symmetry Corrections

EDAX Periodic Table of Elements - Lead

Micro X-ray Fluorescence (Micro-XRF)

Measuring Pb on Printed Circuit Boards for RoHS Compliance


Printed circuit board - Pb(L) X-ray map
Printed circuit board: Pb(L) X-ray map

Printed circuit board - total X-ray spectral count image
Printed circuit board: Total X-ray spectral count image

The screening of samples for restricted or banned materials and chemicals is becoming increasingly important. European law, which has quickly spread in various forms globally, restricts the use of Hg, Pb, Cd, hexavalent Cr, and Br, in certain fire retardants in consumer electronics and other electrical appliances. Micro-XRF can be used to determine Hg, Pb, and Cd levels and identify components with significant levels of Cr and Br requiring further definitive testing. In this case, a printed circuit board has been mapped, showing the use of Pb-based solder on the board.