|Mineralogy is the study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals. Specific studies within mineralogy include the processes of mineral origin and formation, classification of minerals, their geographical distribution and their utilization.
Chemical mineralogy focuses on the chemical composition of minerals in order to identify, classify, and categorize them, as well as to find a beneficial use from them. X-rays are used to determine the atomic arrangements of minerals and to identify and classify them. The arrangements of atoms define the crystal structures of the minerals. The structure of a mineral also offers a precise way of establishing isomorphism. With knowledge of atomic arrangements and compositions, the mineralogists can better understand why minerals have specific physical properties and calculate how those properties change with pressure and temperature.